There are seven specific activities described as “abomination to the Lord.” All seven were intended to “gain information from or influence over a divine being or beings.” The connection of the Molech cult to these activities and underworld entities identifies Molech as the entity we met earlier—Kumarbi, the god summoned from the abi, which, as we’ve seen, is the Hurrian original behind the Hebrew words for “ritual pit” (ʾôb) and the spirits of the underworld (ʾōbôt).Continue Reading

The last section of Isaiah 14 appears to refer to nation-states, specifically Babylon and Assyria. What I’m about to propose is something new: I suggest that the entire chapter is directed at those nations and the entity worshiped as the father of their gods: “I will rise up against them,”Continue Reading

A key connection between Dagan and his other identities is the god’s link to the netherworld. One of Dagan’s epithets was l pagrê, which has been translated “lord of the dead,” “lord of corpse offerings, lord of corpses (a netherworld god), lord of funerary offerings, and lord of human sacrifices.”Continue Reading

The origin of the term for “king” or “ruler” in languages from Western Europe to East Asia is a word used by our distant ancestors for the pre-Flood god-kings, the Rephaim. And it was carried across the continents by the descendants of Noah as they spread out from the Ararat Plain.Continue Reading

In Ugaritic texts, the Rephaim were summoned through a necromancy ritual to the “threshing-floor” of the Canaanite creator-god El. After two days of riding, the Rephaim arrived at the threshing-floor “after sunrise on the third.” The purpose of the ritual was nothing less than the resurrection of the Rephaim.Continue Reading